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ENERGY SUPPLY AND ELECTRICITY TARIFF:

Most of the five Pacific developing member countries (PDMCs) - the Cook Islands, Papua New Guinea (PNG) , Samoa , Tonga , and Vanuatu under the PEEP2 project, with the exception of PNG, are highly dependent on energy imports.  Electricity generation is predominantly diesel-based supplemented by renewable energy generation, such as hydro, biofuels, solar and wind, depending upon available and accessible resources.  The average annual electricity generation mix in the five PDMCs, based on the utilities’ data, and other secondary resources are shown in Figure 1.

 


Note: 1. NRE = New Renewable Energy (Solar, Wind, etc.)
                                  2. PNG generation is based on estimated figures by APERC for 2005.
                     3. Vanuatu generation is based on URA Annual Report 2010.
Figure 1: Generation Mix in the Five PDMCs

 

The electricity tariff structure in each PDMC is relatively straight forward. It is based only on energy charge (kWh) and generally applied across all the major end-use sectors (residential, commercial and industrial), with the exception of the Cook Islands and PNG where demand charges are applied to non-domestic customers.  As illustrated in the generation mix figure, majority of the electricity in the five PDMCs is supplied from diesel electric generation, therefore diesel fuel price is the major influencing factor in determining the electric tariff value.  The most up-to-date electricity tariffs in the five PDMCs are shown in Figure 2.2 .  It should be noted that domestic electricity tariffs in the Cook Islands, PNG and Samoa are in the form of progressive rates, and the tariff values shown in the figure are of the second tier in these three (3) countries, i.e. >60 kWh in the Cook Islands, >30 kWh in PNG and >50 kWh in Samoa.  Detailed information on electricity tariffs in each PDMC is discussed in subsequent sections of this report.

 


Figure 2: Average Electricity Tariff (US$) in the Five PDMCs, as of October 2012

 

 

ENERGY DEMAND:

The household electrification rates vary significantly among the five PDMCs.  In general, the PEEP2 PDMCs can be classified into two major groups according to household electrification rates.  The first group, comprising the Cook Islands, Samoa and Tonga, and in which the household electrification rate is equal or above 90%. While the second group, comprising of PNG and Vanuatu, has a household electrification rate below 30%. The number of households and estimated electrification rates in the five PDMCs are shown in Figure 3.

 


Figure 3: Average Domestic Electricity Tariff (US$), as of October 2012

 

Although the electricity consumption data by end-use sector is not available for all the five PDMCs, the electricity demand profiles clearly indicate that the two major end-use sectors in all the five PDMCs are the residential and commercial sectors, particularly on the main island of each PDMC.  In general, there are two electricity peak demands, i.e. late morning to early afternoon peak and evening peak.  The major contributors to daytime load are commercial end-uses (primarily air-conditioning and lighting).  The decrease in commercial sector activities in the afternoon is replaced by the increase in the residential sector activities (primarily lighting and cooking) resulting in an evening peak.  Typical weekday demand profiles and peak demand in MW of the main island electricity grid in each PDMC are shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 respectively.

 


Figure 4: Typical Weekday Demand Profiles in the Five PDMCs

 


Figure 5: Electricity Peak Demand of the Major Grid in each PDMCs

 

 

ENERGY USE BASELINES:

Residential Sector:
The energy use baselines in the residential sector in each PDMC will be defined by energy performance of common household electrical appliances.  Virtually all the electrical appliances sold in the Pacific Island Countries (PICs) are imported, therefore energy performance of household appliances in the five PDMCs could meet the requirements of Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) and Energy Labeling, implemented or enforced in countries of origin or manufacture.  In the worst case scenario, imported appliances could be sub-standard products with low energy performance in case there are no energy efficiency requirements in countries of origin or manufacture.

Percentage ownership of household appliances in each PDMCs, based on the latest census reports, are summarized in Table 1.  Based on the average import values of refrigerators and freezers from 2008 to 2011, as shown in Figure 6, all refrigerators and freezers in the Cook Islands were imported from Australia and New Zealand, where MEPS and Energy Labeling schemes have been stringently enforced, and hence refrigerators and freezers in the Cook Islands could be as efficient as those in Australia and New Zealand.  It can also be concluded that energy performance of refrigerators and freezers in PNG, Samoa, Tonga and Vanuatu may not be as high as in the Cook Islands since the markets have already absorbed products from countries where MEPS and Energy Labeling requirements may not be enforced. 


Table 1: Ownership of Selected Household Appliances in the Five PDMCs

Appliance

The Cook Islands /1

PNG /2

Samoa /3

Tonga /4

Vanuatu /5

Refrigerator

102%/6

8.8%

48%

65%

16%

Freezer

77%

n/a

28%

n/a

n/a

Television

121%/6

15.1%

81%

72%

41%

Video/DVD Player

99%

4.2%

63%

58%

42%

Washing Machine

78%

3.6%

18%

58%

n/a

Computer

67%

4.8%

10%

16%

11%

Source:/1 The 2011 Census, Preliminary Results
            /2 The 2009 - 2010 PNG Household Income and Expenditure Survey
            /3 Samoa Population and Housing Census 2011 - Tabulation Report V1
            /4 Tonga 2006 Census of Population and Housing
            /5 2009 National Population and Housing Census, Analytical Report, Volume 2
            /6 On average, each household in the Cook Islands has more than one refrigerator and one television.

 


Figure 6 : Average Refrigerator and Freezers Import Value by Countries of Origin, 2008 - 2011

 

However, data compiled by the PEEP2 project to date is not adequate to establish specific energy use baselines for each common household appliance. Therefore, weighted average energy performance of specific household appliances in each PDMC will be determined following the completion of residential electricity end-use surveys in the first half of 2013.

Building Sector:
In determining the energy use baselines for the building sector, the PEEP2 project proposes to categorize buildings by their functions. The primary building categories in the five PDMCs would include: Public Sector (Government) Buildings, Private Sector Buildings, Hotels and Resorts, Hospitals and Retailers.  The required data to determine the building energy use baselines include building stock data and Energy Use Index (EUI) or Specific Energy Consumption (SEC).  Summarized in the table below are typical formats of building stock data and energy use indicators.

Table 2: Typical Building Stock Data and Energy Performance Indicators

Building Type

Building Stock Data

Typical Energy Use Index (EUI)

Office Buildings

Total Area in square meters (m2)

kWh/m2/year

Hotels & Resorts

Type of accommodation, number of rooms and number of occupied rooms/year

MJ/m2/year, MJ/room/year /1

Hospitals

number of beds and number of occupied beds/year

MJ/bed/year

Commercial Buildings & Retailers

Total Area in square meters (m2)

kWh/m2/year

Source: /1 MJ is used to reflect consumptions of non-electrical energy, such as gas and diesel.

The PEEP2 project is conducting surveys to collect data the necessary for compilation of building stock data and determination of EUIs.  The survey findings will be analyzed to establish EUI for different types of buildings in each PDMC.

Street and Outdoor Lighting:
The initial energy use baselines for street and outdoor lighting will be determined by the weighted average lamp efficacy of all street and outdoor light points (or luminaires). The weighted average lamp efficacy will be dependent upon the percentage penetration of different lighting technologies, including energy efficient lighting technologies (such as Light-emitting Diodes (LEDs) lamps, High Pressure Sodium (HPS) lamps, Metal Halide (MH) lamps, Induction lamps) and conventional lighting technologies (such as mercury vapour, fluorescent, or even incandescent).

It should be noted that this lamp efficacy baseline is based on the assumption that all the street and outdoor light points have the same operating hours and this initial baseline does not reflect the quality of street and outdoor lighting in each country. Following the completion of additional street and outdoor lighting surveys in Tonga and Vanuatu, the PEEP2 project team will determine a more comprehensive energy use baseline which can indicate energy performance together with quality performance for street and outdoor lighting.

As shown in Figure 7, Tonga has the highest weighted average lamp efficacy for street lighting (almost 100 lumens per watt), as a result of great utilization of HPS lamps and also LED luminaires (partially supported by ADB during the PEEP1 project). The weighted average lamp efficacy in the Cook Islands is also high (around 90 lumens per watt) because of switching from MV lamps to induction lamps. However, measurements of the street lighting quality have shown that average light level and uniformity delivered by the existing induction lamps are much lower than the recommendations on road lighting for safety published by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA).

The weighted average lamp efficacies for street lighting in PNG, Samoa and Vanuatu are lower than those in the Cook Islands and Tonga, due to proliferation of inefficient lighting technologies in street lighting circuits. PNG has weighted average lamp efficiency of about 65 lumens per watt, as 90% of their street lighting are MV lamps and the remaining 10% are combination of HPS and FL lamps. As for Samoa and Vanuatu, the weighted average lamp efficacies are below 60 lumens per watt, as over 95% of street lighting are still based on MV and fluorescent lighting technologies.

 


Figure 7: Weighted Average Lamp Efficacy for Street and Outdoor Lighting in the Five PDMCs

 

 

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