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Cook Islands


 

 

 

INTRODUCTION:

 


Source: The World Fact Book, CIA

Figure 1: Map of the Cook Islands

 

Table 1: General Information on the Cook Islands

Neighbouring Countries

New Zealand, Niue, French Polynesia, Tonga, American Samoa, Pitcairn Islands

Capital City

Avarua

Land Area

236 sq km

Currency

New Zealand Dollar

Exchange Rate

NZD 1.26/US$ (average 2011) /1

Population Size(habitants)

17,791 (2011 Census - unofficial data)

Number of Households

4,391 (2011 Census - unofficial data)

GDP per Capita

US$15,813 (2008)/2

Electrification Rate(%)

99% /3

Source:/1 www.oanda.com
           /2 Renewable Energy Country Profiles, Pacific, International Renewable Energy Agency (www.irena.org)
           /3 97% are on-grid and 2% are off-grid with diesel generation, solar PV and wind turbine, estimation based on unofficial data from 2011 Census

 

 

ENERGY SECTOR OUTLOOK:

The Cook lslands consists of 15 islands widely dispersed with sea and land areas of about 2,000,000 and 236 square kilometres, respectively. Most of the islands in the Northern group are low coral atolls. The Southern islands, which include Rarotonga with a volcanic-peak of 650 m, are generally higher and more fertile. About 94 percent of the population inhabit the Southern group islands, with 13,000 living on the island of Rarotonga (67 square kilometres), and the remaining 6 percent are in the Northern group islands. (2011 Census - unofficial data)

Tourism is the country's main industry, and the leading element of the economy. Defence and foreign affairs are the responsibility of New Zealand, in consultation with the Cook Islands. In recent times, the Cook Islands have adopted an increasingly independent foreign policy. Although Cook Islanders are citizens of New Zealand, they have the status of Cook Islands nationals, which is not given to all New Zealand citizens. The Cook Islands rely very heavily on imported fuels for transport and electricity generation which is entirely based on diesel-powered generators.  Based on the Cook Islands Annual Statistical Bulletin 2010, fuel imports account for about 28% of GDP.

Energy Efficiency Policies and Regulations:
The 2003 Cook Islands National Energy policy, in principle, is supportive of EE initiatives and it includes a number of articles related to Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EE&C).  The National Sustainable Development Plan developed in early 2007 also includes an energy component with the objective to rationalize the management of the energy sector by developing and implementing a Cook Islands Energy Strategic Plan for all islands. In addition, there are also several energy related Acts, including:

        
  1. The Energy Act specifies the responsibilities of the Energy Division (to plan, promote and help develop energy, establish standards, review legislation, promote conservation, encourage research, monitor electricity tariffs, and monitor and approve quality of petroleum products and compliance with fuel standards) but provides no powers to enable the Division to carry out these functions effectively;
  2. The TAU Act established a government-owned utility to generatesgenerate and distribute electricity for Rarotonga, with no power legislation for other islands;
  3. The Environment Act is applicable to Rarotonga, Aitutaki and Atiu, with no energy-specific provisions, although biomass use for energy is effectively restricted;
  4. The Dangerous Goods Act addresses safe storage and handling petroleum fuels but there are no specific standards or inspection procedures, and;
  5. The Building Controls and Standards Act requires building permits for petroleum storage of 22,730 litres or more, but there are no conditions governing such permits.

Key Energy Efficiency Stakeholders:
In 2011, the government established the Renewable Energy Development Division (REDD) under the Office of the Prime Minister to be responsible for Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE).  In addition, review of various reports and studies have suggested that the following agencies may have a role relevant to development and implementation of Energy Efficiency projects and activities in the Cook Islands. These are:

  • Te Aponga Uira (TAU);
  • Ministry of Finance & Economic Management (MFEM);
  • Ministry of Infrastructure and Planning (MIP);
  • Other agencies, including but not limited to, the Cook Islands Statistics Office, Cook Islands Tourism Corporation (CITC), Cook Islands Investment Corporation (CIIC), National Environment Services, Cook Islands Chamber of Commerce and Bank of the Cook Islands (BCI)

 

 

THE POWER INDUSTRY:

Te Aponga Uira (TAU) is the Government-owned power Authority responsible for the generation, distribution and retailing of electricity on the island of Rarotonga.  On the other islands, the electric utility companies are managed by local government.  TAU provides about 90% of the Cook Islands’ electricity demand.  TAU’s operation is governed by the Te Aponga Uira O Tumu-Te-Varovaro Act 1991, Te Aponga Uira O Tumu-Te-Varovaro Amendment Act 1999, and the Cook Islands Investment Corporation Act 1998.

Electricity Supply:
The total installed capacity of TAU in Rarotonga is around 12 MW powered by 9 diesel generators. Electricity production from renewable energy sources in Cook Islands is mainly from wind and solar power. Mangaia Island has a 40kW wind system with Pukapuka and Nassau having a number of small solar home systems.

The distribution system comprises a total of 82.23 km of underground 11kV cables, 81 substations containing 78 transformers (six of which are owned by the Airport Authority) with a combined capacity of 15,520 kVA and three switching stations and around 207 km of low voltage lines1. In 2009, TAU generated 27.6 GWh of electricity in Rarotonga, of which 24.6 GWh was sold, recording an estimated 12% in distribution losses.

Note:1. http://www.teaponga.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=24:who-we-are&catid=47:about-us&Itemid=38

Electricity Tariff:
Based on the TAU website (www.teaponga.com), TAU's current Electricity Tariff Schedule was effective as of 1st July 2011, as shown in Table 2.

Table 2: EPC Tariff Structures (as of 1st July 2011)

Category

Tariff(NZD)

Tariff(US$)/1

Domestic

 

 

First 60 kWh/Month

0.57

0.45

61 to 300 kWh/Month

0.80

0.63

Balance

0.84

0.67

Commercial

 

 

All

0.81

0.64

Service Charge

5

3.97

Demand

 

 

kWh used

0.72

0.57

Peak/kW

30

23.81

Shoulder/kW

26

20.63

Service Charge

20

15.87

Dual Tariff

 

 

First 60 kWh/Month

0.57

0.45

61 to 300 kWh/Month

0.80

0.63

Balance

0.84

0.67

Service Charge

10

7.94

Note:/1 US$1 = NZD1.26 (average Interbank rate, 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2011,www.oanda.com)

 

It should be noted that Dual Tariff applies to premises used for both a private domestic residence and for commercial purposes, and Demand Tariff applies to large commercial customers. Any building with private and domestic residence, separate meters can be installed, however if customers do not wish to take this option, the Dual Tariff will be applied.

Electricity Demand:
The Rarotonga network consumes about 90% of the total electricity demand in the country.  Based on the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) regional energy indicator study, around 80% of TAU’s customers are domestic customers and the remaining customers are commercial customers.  The total annual electricity sale in 2009 is about 24.6 GWh.  The more up-to-date annual electricity generation and sale data are not available.

Demand Profile:
Based on the load profile data from TAU, Rarotonga’s peak load demand is less than 5MW, and the electricity demand profiles clearly reflect contributions from the commercial sector.  In general, there are 2 electricity peak demands, i.e. late morning to early afternoon peak and evening peak.  Analysis of the load profile showed that the major contributors to daytime load are commercial customers (primarily air-conditioning and lighting).  The decrease in commercial sector activities in the afternoon (around 5pm) is replaced by the increase in the residential sector activities (primarily lighting and cooking) resulting in an evening peak around 8 pm.  In general, peak demands during weekdays are higher than weekends and the differences are estimated around 25%, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

 


Source: TAU, 2012
Figure 2: Weekday Load Profiles, Rarotonga Grid – February 2012



Source: EPC monthly generations Reports for Upolu and Savaii
Figure 3: Weekend Load Profiles, Rarotonga Grid – February 2012

 

 

ENERGY USE BASELINES:

Residential Sector:
The energy use baselines in the residential sector in the Cook Islands will be defined by energy performance of common household appliances in households.  Virtually all the electrical appliances sold in the PICs are imported, therefore energy performance of household appliances in the Cook Islands could meet the requirements of MEPS and Energy Labeling, implemented or enforced in countries of origin or manufacture.  In the worst case scenario, imported appliances could be sub-standard products with low energy performance in case there are no energy efficiency requirements in countries of origin or manufacture.

The 2011 Census in the Cook Island provides collection of data on % ownership of different household appliances and general energy performance (presence of energy labels on appliances).  However, data on sizes and capacities of these household appliances, except televisions, has not been included in the Census report.  Summaries of percentage ownership of household appliances and their respective energy star ratings are discussed in the following sections.

Ownership of Household Appliances:
Ownerships of selected household appliances are shown in Table 3. Based on typical power consumption per unit, average daily operating hours and estimated number of appliances currently in use in the Cook Islands, the priority electrical appliances in the Cook Islands would include: Refrigerators, Freezers, Televisions, Washing Machines, Air-Conditioners, and Lighting Products.


Table 3: Ownership of Selected Household Appliances in Samoa

Appliance

2011 (%) /1

2011 (Est. Unit) /2

Refrigerator

102%/3

4,477

Freezer

77%

3,388

Television

121%/3

5,331

VCR

99%

4,332

Washing Machine

78%

3,445

Clothes Dryer

7%

295

Dish Machine

4%

179

Microwave Oven

54%

2,353

Rice Cooker

39%

1,692

Electric Fan

N/A

 -

Air-Conditioners

5%

217

Computer

67%

2,955

Source:   /1 the 2011 Census, Preliminary Results
               /2 Estimated number of appliances in the residential sector in the Cook Islands, based on 4,391 households
               /3 % ownership exceeding 100% indicates that each household on average has more than one unit of this specific type of appliance.


Energy Performance of Household Appliances in the Cook Islands

Based on the statistical data provided by the Cook Islands Statistics Office, majority of household appliances in the Cook Islands are imported from Australia/New Zealand.  Most of priority appliances highlighted in Table 3, such as refrigerators, freezers and washing machines carry AUS/NZ energy labels and comply with AUS/NZ MEPS.  The 2011 Census also collected data on star rating of various household appliances and findings from the preliminary results show that most of the priority household appliances in the Cook Islands carry 3-star rating energy labels, as shown in Figure 4.



Source: The 2011 Census, preliminary results
Figure 4: Energy Star Rating of Key Household Appliances in the Cook Islands

 

Based on electric appliance surveys in the two major retailers in the Cook Islands conducted by IIEC in June 2012, it is found that the share of appliances with energy labels in the Cook Islands is relatively high (>75%), as shown Figure 5.  The indicative energy performances of household appliances in the Cook Islands, estimated by the PEEP2 project team, are summarized in Table 4



Figure 5: Refrigerators with AUS/NZ Energy Labels in an Electrical Appliance Shop in the Cook Islands

 

Table 4: Indicative Energy Performance of Priority Household Appliances in the Cook Islands

Electrical Appliance

Common Type

Indicative Energy Performance

Refrigerators

2-Door Fridge/Freezer

Most are compliance with AUS/NZ minimum energy performance requirements, as they carry AUS/NZ energy labels.

Freezers

Chest Freezer

Most are compliance with AUS/NZ minimum energy performance requirements, as they carry AUS/NZ energy labels.

Television

Flat Screen

Most are compliance with AUS/NZ minimum energy performance requirements, as they carry AUS/NZ energy labels.

Source: Market surveys conducted by the PEEP2 Project Team

The data gathered from the retailer surveys also includes information on appliance brands, country of manufacture. It should be noted that information on electrical appliance brands and country of manufacture is not comprehensive. The country of manufacture of certain appliances is not easily identifiable and in some cases could only be identified through the product’s user manual.  Table 5 shows that all electrical appliances listed are sourced from New Zealand and Australia, while majority of the electrical appliances are manufactured in China and Japan.


Table 5: Brands and Countries of Manufacture of Common Household Appliances in the Cook Islands

Electrical Appliance

Brand

Countries of Manufacture/ Origin

Refrigerators

Kelvinator, Electrolux, Fisher & Paykel, Haier, Belper, Westinghouse

China, Japan, Italy/
Australia, New Zealand

Freezers

Kelvinator, Electrolux, Fisher & Paykel, Haier, Belper, Westinghouse

China, Japan, Italy/
Australia, New Zealand

Air Conditioners
(all sizes)

Mitsubishi, Daikin, Electrolux, Fujitsu, Gree

China, Japan/
Australia, New Zealand

Electric Fans

Celsius

China, Japan/
Australia, New Zealand

Televisions

LG, Konka, Panasonic, Sony

China, Japan, Italy/
Australia, New Zealand

Linear Fluorescent Lamps

Philips, Maspion

China, Japan/
Australia, New Zealand

Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)

Ecobulb, Philips, GE, Thorns

China, Japan/
Australia, New Zealand

Incandescent Lamps

GE

N/A / Australia, New Zealand

Source: Market surveys conducted by the PEEP2 Project Team


Building Sector:

The primary building categories in the Cook Islands would include: Public Sector (Government) Buildings, Private Sector Buildings (offices and retailers), Hotels and Resorts, and Hospitals.  Necessary data to determine energy use baselines for the building sector, including building stock data and Energy Use Index (EUI) or Specific Energy Consumption (SEC), is not available in the Cook Islands.  The PEEP2 Project is currently conducting building surveys in the Cook Islands to compile all necessary data to establish the energy use baselines for the building sector. 

Street and Outdoor Lighting:
Based on data provided by TAU, there are only 246 light points for street and outdoor lighting in the Cook Islands, and about 85% of which are based on relatively energy efficient lighting technologies for street and outdoor lighting applications, such as LED and induction lamps, as summarized in Table 6.  Population of different lighting technologies for street and outdoor lighting in the Cook Islands are shown in Figure 6.  The weighted average lamp efficacy for all street and outdoor lighting in the Cook Islands, calculated based on average lamp efficacies specified in the Annex, is 93 lumen per watt.

 

Table 6: Number of Light Points and Lighting Technologies for Street and Outdoor Lighting in the Cook Islands

Lighting Technology

Typical Wattage

No. of Light Points (2012)

%

Induction Lamp

28W

195

79%

LED

30W

13

5%

High Pressure Sodium

50W

37

15%

High Pressure Sodium

150W

1

0%

Source: TAU, 2012

 


Figure 6: Types of Lamps for Street and Outdoor Lighting in the Cook Islands

 

 

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