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Map of Samoa
Source: The World Fact Book, CIA

Figure 1: Map of Samoa


Table 1: General Information on Samoa

Neighbouring Countries

Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Niue, Tonga, Tuvalu and Wallis & Futuna

Capital City


Land Area

2,821 sq km


Samoan Tala (ST$)

Exchange Rate

ST$ 2.27/US$ (average 2011)

Population Size(habitants)

187,820 (2011 Census)

Number of Households

26,205 (2011 Census)

GDP per Capita

US$2,776 (2009)/1

Electrification Rate(%)


Source: /1 Renewable Energy Country Profiles, Pacific, International Renewable Energy Agency (
            /2 Others: Samoa Bureau of Statistics; SPC, 2011




Energy demand in Samoa is met by three main sources: biomass (47%), fossil fuel (45%), and hydropower (8%). Biomass is mainly used for cooking. In the fiscal year 2010/2011, 78.7% of imported petroleum (91.5 million litres)1 in Samoa is for transportation and the remaining 21.3% (19.5 million litres) are for power generation The total cost of petroleum imports in 2009 was about US$60.5 million. In the same year, the GDP was US$496.5 million2. Petroleum imports therefore represent 12.2% of GDP. Thus the cost of petroleum imports represents a major burden on the Samoan economy.In terms of electricity generation, 67.67% of the total electricity generation in the fiscal year 2010/2011 were based on diesel generaion, while the remaining share is based on hydropower generation.Considering this, promoting energy efficiency and energy conservation and developing clean, indigenous, and renewable energy resources to reduce the economy’s risk exposure to foreign exchange fluctuations and fuel price increases is a high development priority for Samoa.

Note:1. Ministry of Finance, Samoa Energy Review Report, 2010
          2. SPC Regional Energy Indicators, 2009.

Energy Efficiency Policies and Regulations:
The Samoa National Energy Policy, approved in June 2007, identifies the need to promote clean and renewable energy resources and efficiency in the energy sector to reduce Samoa’s heavy reliance on imported fossil fuel.  The goals of the Samoa National Energy Policy are:

  1. To increase the share of mass production from renewable sources to 20% by the year 2030.
  2. To increase the contribution of Renewable Energy for energy services and supply by 20% by 2030.

The strategic action plan for the national energy policy focuses its strategies and activities into 5 areas as follows:

  1. Planning and Management, Objective: Efficient and effective coordination and management of the Energy Sector
  2. Renewable Energy, Objective: To successfully change from fossil fuel dependency to Renewable Energy investment
  3. Electricity, Objective: Efficient, Reliable, Affordable and sustainable electricity services
  4. Petroleum, Objective: Access for all to reliable, affordable and safe petroleum products
  5. Transport, Objective: Efficient, sustainable and cost-effective transport sector

Under the Electricity Area, promoting implementation of Demand-Side Management (DSM) strategies for increased efficiency for all consumer activities has been identified as one of the proposed strategies.  In addition to the national energy policy, there are a number of Acts that deal directly or indirectly with energy issues, and these include but not necessarily limited to:

  • The Price Control Act with procedures for controlling prices of petroleum fuels and other commodities;
  • The EPC Act governing activities of the electric power utility;
  • The Foreign Investment Act which reserves some businesses for Samoans, and;
  • The Public Bodies (Performance and Accountability) Act  which requires state owned enterprises to meet community service obligations, including universal access to a necessary good or service. 
  • The Petroleum Act 1984

Key Energy Efficiency Stakeholders:
Review of various reports and studies have suggested that the following agencies may have a role relevant to development and implementation of Energy Efficiency projects and activities in Samoa. These are:

  • Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE): MNRE is responsible for implementation of energy efficiency projects and is the Implementing Agency for this ADB sponsored project Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific, Phase 2 (PEEP-2)
  • The Energy Unit of the Ministry of Finance (MOF): The Energy Unit has been mandated with the overall responsibility for policy and strategic planning for the energy sector. According to the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), the Energy unit will also oversee the development of the Standards and Appliance bill.
  • Electric Power Corporation (EPC): Responsible for generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity throughout Samoa.
  • National Energy Coordination Committee (NECC): NECC’s primary role to provide oversight on the implementation of the Samoa Energy Sector Plan (SESP), and ensure effective coordination of national activities and that energy is mainstreamed and aligned to the Strategy for the Development of Samoa (SDS) 2012-2016.
  • Other agencies, including but not limited to, Samoa Bureau of Statistics, Samoa Meteorology Division, Customs Department, Ministry of Revenue (MOR), National Standard Body, Samoa Toursim Authority (STA), and Industry Associations such as the Samoa Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

The Energy Unit of the Ministry of Finance (MOF) has been mandated with the overall responsibility for policy and strategic planning for the energy sector.  According to the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), the Energy unit will also oversee the development of the Standards and Appliance bill. MNRE is responsible for implementation of energy efficiency projects and is the Implementing Agency for this ADB sponsored project Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific, Phase 2 (PEEP-2)




The Electric Power Corporation (EPC) is a wholly government owned corporation and responsible for all operating responsibilities for the power sector. The EPC Act (1980) and the EPC Amendment Act (2001) mandate EPC with the authority for generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity throughout Samoa. The utility operates as a separate entity and is defined as a public trading body under the Public Bodies Act (2001), with the principal objective of operating as a commercial business.

Electricity Supply:
Most of the electricity in Samoa, particularly for the main grid, is generated from diesel and hydropower. A very small amount of electricity is produced from biomass (coconut residues) and solar energy resources.  Samoa consists of 2 main islands, Upolu and Savaii, which together cover about 95% of the country’s total land area.  The Upolu system is supplied by integrated hydro-diesel networks. EPC’s system in Savaii is entirely diesel generation.  The total available installed capacity for Upolu and Savaii system as of August 2010 was about 34 MW (diesel – 22.5 MW and hydro – 11.45 MW).  It should be noted that the last hydro power installation was carried out over a decade ago, therefore the increase peak demand and energy over the past 10 years have been met by diesel generation. 

Based on EPC’s 2010/2011 annual report, the total contribution of hydropower and diesel generation amounted to 32.32% and 67.67%, respectively, while solar power has miniscule contribution of 0.01%.  In the fiscal year 2010/2011 the total EPC generation was 109,030 MWh and the total sales were 89,736 MWH. The difference is attributable to transmission and distribution (T&D) losses in the EPC system. This difference is 19,294 MWh or 17.7%.

Figure2: Electricity Production by Source, 2010/2011


Electricity Tariff:
Based on the EPC website (, the electricity tariff structure is reviewed on a 6-monthly basis. The tariff adjustment has been in response to the rising cost of fuel. EPC Tariff structures as of 1st August 2012 are summarized in the table below.The EPC 2010/2011 annual report shows the total electricity sales of 89,735,033 kWh with the total revenue of ST$83.3 million. The average electricity tariff across all the end-use sectors based on these kWh and revenue figures is ST$0.93 (or US$0.41).

Table 2: EPC Tariff Structures (as of 1stAugust 2012)


Base Rate (US$)

Fuel Surcharge 27.49% (US$)

Total (US$)

1. Domestic Consumption (kWh)




a. 1 – 50




b. > 50




2. Non-domestic Consumption (kWh)*




Note: 1. Non-domestic consumption includes commercial, religious, schools, government ministries, etc.
          2. US$1 = ST$2.27 (average Interbank rage, 1-31 August 2012,

Electricity Demand:

The two largest islands (Upolu and Savaii) consume about 95% of the total electricity generation in Samoa.  The 2011 Population Census shows that around 96% of households in Samoa are electrified.  EPC continues to enhance electricity coverage throughout the country which has resulted in the increase of its consumer base from 38,158 in 2009/2010 to 39,922 by the end of the 2010/2011 fiscal year.  However, electricity consumption in Samoa over the past 3 years was relatively constant at about 90 GWh per year.  The commercial sector is the largest end-use sector in Samoa, accounting for about 43% of the total consumption, followed by the residential sector, about 30%.  The remaining consumptions were made up by the public sector (government), industrial sector, educational institutions, religious organizations, etc. 

It should be noted that most new connections are prepayment users (CashPower), and many EPC’s non-prepayment residential users have converted to prepayment users.  As a result, around 77% of residential end-users are now prepayment users, who seem to apply more stringent electricity conservation practices/measures than the non-prepayment users.  However, additional assessment and analysis should be undertaken to confirm if the zero-growths over the past 3 years were primarily due to the impacts of the prepayment users.  The electricity consumptions by sector in the 2009/2010 fiscal year are shown in Figure 3 .


Source: EPC Annual Report, 2011
Figure 3: Electricity Consumption by End-Use Sector


Demand Profile:
Based on data from the operation reports of EPC, electricity demand profiles in Upolu and Savaii are different reflecting contributions from different end-use sectors in these 2 islands. In Upolu, there are 2 electricity peak demands, i.e. late morning to noon peak and evening peak, as shown in Figure 4. Analysis of the load profile showed that the major contributors to daytime load are industrial (primarily base load) and commercial customers (primarily air-conditioning and lighting). The decrease in commercial sector activity in the afternoon (around 5pm) is replaced by the increase in the residential sector activity (primarily lighting and cooking) resulting in an evening peak around 7 pm. For Savaii, there is only one salient peak demand in the evening representing the residential sector activity (primarily lighting, cooling/heating and cooking) during 7pm to 8 pm.


Source: EPC monthly generations Reports for Upolu and Savaii
Figure 4: Typical Load Profiles in Upolu and Savaii


Figure 5 below illustrates the absence of commercial sector activities in Upolu during weekends (Saturday and Sunday) in comparison with the weekday (Monday) demand profile. 

Source: EPC, 2011
Figure 5: Typical Load Patterns –Weekends and Weekday, Upolu




Residential Sector:
The latest Census in Samoa does not include collection of data on sizes, energy performance (presence of energy labels on appliances, and power consumption rating) and usage patterns, therefore energy performance of household appliances in Samoa will be determined based on the results of a household survey to be conducted by the PEEP2 project to collect additional data to better determine the baselines of energy performance of household appliances in Samoa.  Findings from residential data collections and analysis in Samoa are discussed in the following sections.

Ownership of Household Appliances:
Based on the 2011 Population Census, there are a total of 26,205 private households in Samoa, and 25,262 of which are electrified (96.4%).  Ownerships of selected household appliances as summarized in the 2011 and 2006 Census reports are shown in Table 3.  Based on typical power consumption per unit, average daily operating hours and estimated number of appliances currently in use in Samoa, the priority electrical appliances in Samoa would include: Refrigerator, Freezer, Television, Washing Machine, Rice Cooker, Electric Fan, Air-Conditioners and Lighting Products.

Table 3: Ownership of Selected Household Appliances in Samoa


2006 (%) /1

2011 (%) /2

2011 (Est. Unit) /3


61% /4











Video/DVD Player




Washing Machine




Microwave Oven




Rice Cooker




Electric Fan








Electric Kettle




Water Pump








Source:/1 Samoa Population and Housing Census Report, 2006
           /2 Samoa Population and Housing Census 2011 – Tabulation Report V1
           /3 Estimated number of appliances in the residential sector in Samoa, based on 26,205 households
           /4 60% ownership of refrigerators in the 2006 Census report

Energy Performance of Household Appliances in Samoa:

Based on data provided by the Customs Department and Samoa Bureau of Statistics, two major import origins are identified, i.e.: 1) wholesalers/trading companies in Australia/New Zealand of which products usually comply with AUS/NZ MEPS and Energy Labeling requirements, and; 2) wholesalers/trading companies in other countries (e.g. China, Fiji and Singapore) from which products may or may not comply with MEPS or Energy Labeling of the respective countries of origin.  Analysis of import statistics from 2008 to 2011 has shown that penetration of non-AUS/NZ appliances has increased for most types of appliances, except fluorescent lighting. 

It should be noted that using import units is a more accurate way of determining the share of each country as the import value share is influenced by exchange rates and equipment costs, i.e. the electrical equipment import value from Australia and New Zealand is typically higher than that of the People’s Republic of China (China).   However, the Customs departments usually interest in determining the value of the imported electrical appliances for taxation purposes and therefore the number of imported units is not usually a priority or correctly indicated by the supplier and/or customs officer, especially with regards to small electrical appliances such as lamps.


Source: Samoa Bureau of Statistics
Figure 6: Imports of Major Electrical Appliances in Samoa (2008 -2010)

Based on available import statistics and market observations during the country visits, the PEEP2 project team summarizes indicative energy performance of household appliances in Samoa, as shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Indicative Energy Performance of Priority Household Appliances in Samoa

Electrical Appliance

Common Type

Indicative Energy Performance


2-Door Fridge/Freezer

<50% comply with AUS/NZ MEPS


Chest Freezer

>60% comply with AUS/NZ MEPS




Domestic Washing Machines

Front Loaded and Top Loaded

>60% comply with AUS/NZ MEPS

Air Conditioners


<40% comply with AUS/NZ MEPS

Fluorescent Lighting

T8 and CFL

>80% comply with AUS/NZ market

Source: Import statistics 2008 – 2011, Samoa Bureau of Statistics, and market surveys conducted by the PEEP2 Project Team

Market Characteristics:
The data presented in this section is based on an electric appliance survey of five major retailers and wholesalers in Samoa conducted by IIEC during June 2012.  The data gathered includes information on appliance brands, country of manufacture, and complements existing customs data presented above. Note that information of electrical appliance brands and country of manufacture is not comprehensive. The country of manufacture of certain appliances is not easily identifiable and in some cases could only be identified through the product’s user manual.

Table 5: Brands and Countries of Manufacture of Common Household Appliances in Samoa

Electrical Appliance


Countries of Manufacture


Samsung, Mitsubishi, LG, Westinghouse, Kelvinator (Electrolux), Fisher & Paykel, Sharp, Panasonic, Toshiba, Haier

Mostly manufactured in China and Thailand. For example, Sharp and Haier branded products manufactured in Thailand and imported through Singapore


Samsung, Mitsubishi, LG, Lianpin, Westinghouse, Kelvinator, Fisher & Paykel, Sharp, Panasonic, Toshiba, Akira, Haier

Mostly manufactured in China

Air Conditioners
(all sizes)

Polar Ice, Akira, Sharp


Domestic Washing Machines

Panasonic, Fisher & Paykel, Modyl


Compact Fluorescent Lamps



Incandescent Lamps



Source: Market surveys conducted by the PEEP2 Project Team

The PEEP2 project team conducted electric appliance surveys in five major retailers and wholesalers in Apia in June 2012. The objective of the survey was to compile information on the proportion of energy labels for each type of electrical appliance and the respective country of origin of these labels. Overall, the electrical appliance market in Apia has not changed much since 2009 with the same retailers and brands in market.  However, the PEEP2 Project Team noticed that the retailers are finding it challenging to sell products with Australian/New Zealand Energy Labels due to their higher selling prices.  Generally, the energy labels affixed on the appliances are out-dated by two or more years.  Photographs of energy labels present in electrical appliances in wholesaler and retailer shops in Samoa are shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8.


Figure 7 : Refrigerator/Freezers with Hong Kong and Singaporean Energy Labels in Major Retailers in Apia


Figure 8 : Chest Freezers and Clothes Washers with AUS/NZ Energy Labels in Major Retailers in Apia

Building Sector:

The primary building categories in Samoa would include: Public Sector (Government) Buildings, Private Sector Buildings, Hotels and Resorts, Hospitals and Retailers.  Necessary data to determine energy use baselines for the building sector, including building stock data and Energy Use Index (EUI) or Specific Energy Consumption (SEC), is not available in PNG.  The PEEP2 Project is currently conducting building surveys in Samoa to compile all necessary data to establish the energy use baselines for the building sector.  Initial findings from the surveys to date are summarized in Figure 9.


Figure 9 : Energy Use Index of Hotels and Resorts in Samoa (as of 11 September 2012)


Street and Outdoor Lighting:
Based on EPC’s data, there are over 7,000 light points for street and outdoor lighting in Samoa, and over 90% of which are based on relatively inefficient lighting technologies for street and outdoor lighting applications (i.e. fluorescent tube lamps and mercury vapour lamps).  It should be noted that EPC has stopped ordering fluorescent lamps for street and outdoor lighting since 2006, and failed fluorescent lamps have been replaced by other lighting technologies, such as HPS lamps and induction lamps, since then.  As a result, the share of fluorescent lamps in the overall street and outdoor light points will gradually decline over years.  Population of different lighting technologies for street and outdoor lighting in PNG are shown in Figure 10.

The weighted average lamp efficacy for all street and outdoor lighting in Samoa, calculated based on average lamp efficacies specified in the Annex, is 57 lumen per watt.

Table 6: Number of Light Points and Lighting Technologies for Street and Outdoor Lighting in Samoa

Lighting Technology

Typical Wattage
















80W & 100W







High Pressure Sodium








Metal Halides








Total Light Points



Source: Electric Power Corporation (EPC), 2011


Figure 10 : Types of Lamps for Street and Outdoor Lighting in Samoa

Figure 11 : GIS Data on Street and Outdoor Lighting in Samoa



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